Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their work and ideas.

Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs recognise and adhere to the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), its aims and core practices.

Ethics Committee Approval

Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the ICMR National Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical and Health Research Involving Human Participants. 

Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.


The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign in to your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

Authorship and Acknowledgements

Determining authorship is an important component of upholding the integrity of the research and scholarly enterprise and serves as an explicit way of assigning responsibility and giving credit for intellectual work. Only by honestly reflecting the contribution of all members of the research team can there be sustained growth in the discipline and proper credit directed to scholars for their efforts. Fair and equitable determination of authorship is also important to the reputation, academic promotion, and funding support of the individuals involved, and to the strength and reputation of the authors’ respective institutions.

Designing an ethical and transparent approach to authorship and publication of research in any peer-reviewed journal is a shared responsibility of all research team members but is primarily the responsibility of the Principal Investigator or Corresponding Author.

Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs recognises the general criteria for authorship as follows,

  • Each author is expected to have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work; or have drafted the work or substantively revised it; AND
  • To have approved the submitted version (and any substantially modified version that involves the author’s contribution to the study); AND
  • To have agreed both be personally accountable for the author’s own contributions and to help ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Financial sponsorship or donation of gift funding does not constitute criteria for authorship. Individuals who do not meet the recommended requirements for authorship, but have provided a valuable contribution to the work, should be acknowledged for their contributing role as appropriate to the publication. Authorship should not be conferred on those who have not made intellectual contributions to the work, or whose intellectual contributions are limited.

Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

Conflict of Interest

“A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial interest, or otherwise, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation of the individual or organization. The presence of a conflict of interest is independent of the occurrence of impropriety.”

It is the policy of Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors. Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

Duplicate Submission

If the material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please contact the Editor-in-Chief at the e-mail address provided.

Citation Manipulation

Citation manipulation is not a new phenomenon. When articles are found to contain references that do not contribute to the scholarly content of the article and have been included solely as a mechanism of increasing citations, the result misrepresents the importance of the specific work and the journal in which it appears. The ability of citations to be manipulated has resulted in a more cautious approach to accepting the legitimacy of citation indexes as the most important indicator of the impact of scholarly publications. Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs will adhere to the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) in case of citation manipulation.

Fabrication of Results

Manipulating research data with the intention of giving a false impression. This includes manipulating images (e.g. micrographs, gels, radiological images), removing outliers or “inconvenient” results, changing, adding or omitting data points, etc.

When scientific misconduct is alleged, or concerns are otherwise raised about the conduct or integrity of work described in submitted or published papers, Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs will initiate appropriate procedures detailed by such committees as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), consider informing the institutions and funders, and may choose to publish an expression of concern pending the outcomes of those procedures. 

Generally, if an author’s figures are questionable, it is suggested to request the original data from the authors.

Corrections and Retraction

If there are errors that significantly affect the conclusions or there is evidence of misconduct, the manuscript may require retraction or an expression of concern following the COPE Retraction Guidelines.