Main Article Content
Pre-clinical testing is an obligatory component of research that not only aids in understanding the mechanisms and behavior of any therapeutic agent but also paves the way for future clinical trials. Animal models provide the best alternatives to human experimentation. They not only enable the testing and validation of in vitro developments but also serve as a pivotal source in the identification of biological and physiological functions of the body. In periodontal research, animal experimentation is inevitable for understanding the pathogenesis of different diseases, drug trials, generation of biomedical products, and testing for biocompatibility of materials. In this review, we are discussing the development of animal models for specific areas of periodontal research. These include models to study the pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics of drugs, models for anti-infective therapy-Immune suppression, models for periodontal tissue destruction, models for periodontal disease pathogenesis and models to study bone formation. The different species of animal models utilized in periodontal research have also been elucidated. In addition, the decision making and policies for use of animals in research have been included along with a brief overview of the possibilities of exploring alternatives to animal models.