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Torque in orthodontics is an important factor in refining teeth position. Rectangular archwire induced torque forces transferred through the bracket angulates the teeth root/crown to a stable position. The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the generated torque in commonly used Stainless Steel (SS), Heat activated NiTi (HANT), Super Elastic Nickel Titanium (SENT) and Beta-Titanium (Beta-Ti) archwires for an applied angle of archwire twist. A specially designed fixture was fabricated and mounted in the spine tester to measure the archwire torque up to 30o angle of twist in increments of 5o.  For the 30o angle of twist, the archwire torque was 37 Nmm, 31.5 Nmm, 28 Nmm, and 20 Nmm in SS, Beta-Ti, HANT and SENT respectively. The SS archwires generated more torque compared with Beta-Ti, HANT and SENT archwires. Clinically required torque was reached within 25o angle of twist in SS and HANT archwires whereas it was reached at 20o and 30o angle of twist in Beta-Ti and SENT archwires respectively. Our experimental study revealed the torque generated from the commonly used archwires which would help clinicians during fixed appliance therapy in torque prediction and archwire selection.


torque stainless steel heat activated NiTi betatitanium

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Harikrishnan, P., Magesh, V., Balamani, A., Khanna, P., & Karnam, S. K. (2022). Experimental Evaluation of Torque forces During Simulated Twists from Various Orthodontic Archwires. Trends in Biomaterials & Artificial Organs, 36(1), 1-3. Retrieved from

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