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Precision medicines are next-generation medicines that apply logistics to improve the efficacy of therapy, reduce safety issues, and reduce patient non-compliance. In this line, we propose a new concept of combining diagnostics with prophylaxis and token the idea of “prophynostics.” Detection followed by prophylactic therapy can prevent disease occurrence. That is particularly important in the case of situations like preventing COVID-19 viral spreading and seizure prevention in epilepsy. However, efforts to achieve this goal is somewhat elusive. This work reports a device platform for detection, followed by the delivery of nicotine through two different routes. Modeling of the detection of a suitable clinical situation is done by choosing epileptic seizure detection. Subsequently, we designed and developed a vibration dependent detection device for detecting seizure type vibrations. For attaining rapid loading dose in patients, delivery through the sublingual route is planned. For that, appropriate nicotine, aspirin, paracetamol sublingual patch is designed and developed. To achieve prolonged delivery of a sustained dose of nicotine in patients, transdermal delivery is planned. For that, suitable nicotine, aspirin, and paracetamol transdermal patch are designed and developed. The platform possibilities of the delivery systems are demonstrated using drugs from various BCS classification system. The drug release properties of the optimized patches are fitted with different models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi, and Koresmayer-Peppas and optimized the release profile as per requirements. This combined system can overcome issues like addiction possibilities of nicotine while exploring it for prophylaxis. Nicotine proposed to have anti-COVID and antiepileptic properties in addition to the anti-inflammatory properties of NSAID’s; for such purpose, this type of device can be developed and used.


COVID-19, Precision medicine, Detection, Prophylaxis, COVID-19, Epilepsy, NSAIDs, Device, Sublingual, Transdermal, Polymer, Drug delivery

Article Details

Author Biographies

Aishwari S. Kumar, Amrita School of Pharmacy, AMRITA, Kochi

M Pharm student

Thomas Kuruvilla , Amrita School of Pharmacy, AMRITA, Kochi

B Pharm student

S.G. Kavya, Amrita School of Pharmacy, AMRITA, Kochi

M Pharm student

Abdul Rasheed, Amrita School of Pharmacy, AMRITA, Kochi

B Pharm student

Juna Konikkara, Amrita School of Pharmacy, AMRITA, Kochi

PhD student

Renju Radhakrishnan, Amrita School of Pharmacy

PhD student

How to Cite
S. Kumar, A., Kuruvilla , T., SG, K. ., Rasheed, A., Konikkara, J. ., Radhakrishnan, R., & Kamalasanan, K. (2021). Precision Medicine by Combining Diagnosis with Prophylaxis Towards “Prophynostics”: Controlled Delivery of Nicotine Using a Device Platform for Treating Epilepsy. Trends in Biomaterials & Artificial Organs, 35(1), 36-43. Retrieved from

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